The Down UNder Doppler and Electricity Experiment (DUNDEE)


Spider lightning above the MIT radome during DUNDEE (photo by Tom Rickenbach)

Overview of the Experiment:

DUNDEE was carried out in the vicinity of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia during the wet seasons of November 1988 through February 1989, and November 1989 through February 1990. The general goal of DUNDEE was to investigate the dynamical and electrical properties of tropical mesoscale convective systems and isolated deep convective storms. The observational network consisted of two C-band Doppler radars (MIT and TOGA), a 50 MHz vertically pointing wind profiler, mesonet stations, upper air sounding stations, and cloud electricity instrumentation.

DUNDEE was a collaborative effort between Colorado State University (S.A. Rutledge), the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (E. Williams), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre (T. Keenan).


CSU Radar Meteorology Group Published Research on DUNDEE:

Cifelli, R., and S.A. Rutledge, 1994: Vertical motion structure in Maritime Continent mesoscale convective systems: Results from a 50-MHz profiler. J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 2631-2652.

Cifelli, R., and S.A. Rutledge, 1998: Vertical motion, diabatic heating, and rainfall characteristics in N. Australia convective systems. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 124, 1133-1162.

Cifelli, R., S.A. Rutledge, D.J. Boccippio, and T. Matejka, 1996: Horizontal divergence and vertical velocity retrievals from Doppler radar and wind profiler observations. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 13, 948-966.

Keenan, T.D., and S.A. Rutledge, 1993: Mesoscale characteristics of monsoonal convection and associated stratiform precipitation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121, 352-374.

Petersen, W.A., and S.A. Rutledge, 1992: Some characteristics of cloud-to-ground lightning in tropical northern Australia. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 11553-11560.

Petersen, W.A., and S.A. Rutledge, 1998: On the relationship between cloud-to- ground lightning and convective rainfall. J. Geophys. Res. ,103, 14025-14040.

Randell, S.C., S.A. Rutledge, R.D. Farley, and J.H. Helsdon, Jr., 1994: A modeling study on the early electrical development of tropical convection: Continental and oceanic (monsoon) storms. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122, 1852-1877.

Rasmussen, E.N., and S.A. Rutledge, 1993: Squall line evolution. Part I: Kinematic and reflectivity structure. J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 2584-2606.

Rutledge, S.A., E.R. Williams, and T.D. Keenan, 1992: The Down Under Doppler and Electricity Experiment (DUNDEE): Overview and preliminary results. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 73, 3-16.

Rutledge, S.A., E.R. Williams, and W.A. Petersen, 1993: Lightning and electrical structure of mesoscale convective systems.Atmos. Res., 29, 27-53.

Rutledge, S.A., W.A. Petersen, 1994: Vertical radar reflectivity structure and cloud-to-ground lightning in the stratiform region of MCS's: Further evidence for in-situ charging in the stratiform region. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122, 1760-1776.

Williams, E.R., S.A. Rutledge, S.G. Geotis, N. Renno, E. Rasmussen, and T. Rickenbach, 1992: A radar and electrical study of tropical "hot towers". J. Atmos. Sci., 49, 1386-1395.